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Definition of Terms

Adenomyosis: A condition where pieces of the lining tissue (endometrium) grows into the muscular layer of the uterus causing enlargement of the uterus and possible symptoms of pain and abnormal bleeding.

Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual bleeding.
Amniocentesis: The surgical insertion of a hollow needle through the abdominal wall and into the uterus of a pregnant female to obtain amniotic fluid. In early pregnancy this procedure may be used to look at the fetal chromosomes for an abnormality and for the determination of sex. In later pregnancy, the sample taken may be used to assess fetal lung maturity.
Breast Infection (Mastitis): Causes a red, warm and painful mass associated with a temperature over 100.5 degrees. Should this develop, contact our office immediately. Please have the telephone number of your pharmacy available at the time of your call. The usual treatment is antibiotics and hot packs. Avoid massage, as this can cause the infection to spread. Continue to breastfeed to avoid an abscess.
Cyst: A closed sac that has a distinct wall. The sac develops abnormally in a body cavity or structure such as the ovary (ovarian cyst).
Cystocele: Prolapse or falling of the bladder from its normal position.
Dysmenorrhea: Painful periods.
Dyspareunia: Painful sexual intercourse.
Dysplasia: Variation in cell appearance, abnormal cells.
Dysuria: Painful or difficult urination.
Ectopic Pregnancy: A condition where a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, generally in a fallopian tube causing unusual bleeding and pelvic pain. This situation can be a life-threatening situation and requires surgical removal of the pregnancy or possibly medical treatment with methotrexate.
Endometriosis: A condition where the endometrium or endometrial cells are found outside the uterus. These cells respond to the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle and can cause severe pain and possible problems with fertility.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV): A common virus that affects both females and males. Most types of HPV are harmless, do not cause any symptoms, and go away on their own.
Hyperplasia: An excessive growth of tissue - such as of the endometrial cells in the uterus - this would be uterine hyperplasia and can be pre-cancerous.
Hyperemesis: Excessive vomiting most often associated with pregnancy (Hyperemesis Gravidarum).
Hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus. This may also include removal of the ovaries.
Fibroids: A benign (noncancerous) tumor that can grow in the uterus. Fibroids may cause pain and bleeding.
Mastitis: An infection of the breast (mammary glands).
Menometrorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding occurring either during the menses or at irregular intervals.
Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding occurring at regular intervals with period of flow being of usual duration.
Menopause: The change of life when the ovaries stop working and menstrual periods no longer occur. A woman is considered menopausal when there have been no periods for at least 12 months. Menopause can also occur after surgical removal of the ovaries.
Non-stress Test: A method to track fetal heart rate to determine fetal well being.
Osteoporosis: Loss of bone or thinning of the bone structure which causes brittleness and an increased risk of fracture (break).
Papanicolaou test (smear): A simple, painless test used most commonly to detect cancer of the uterus and cervix; often called Pap test or smear.
Pelvic prolapse: A condition where the organs in the pelvic area (uterus, bladder, vagina and rectum) are altered and "fall" or sag from the normal position.
Polycystic ovaries: A condition where multiple cysts develop on the ovaries, affecting hormonal balance and can cause enlarged ovaries, increased pain, amenorrhea, abnormal facial hair growth, infertility and obesity (also known as PCOS, Stein-Leventhal syndrome and polycystic ovarian disorder).
Pre-eclampsia: A complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, edema and/or proteinuria.
Rectocele: When the rectum bulges into or out of the vagina (also known as posterior wall prolapse).
Uterine prolapse: A condition where the uterus sags or falls out of alignment from normal position.
Vaginitis: An inflammation of the vaginal area usually associated with vaginal discharge and infection.
Weaning: This can be accomplished at any time. Planning ahead is helpful, beginning with a gradual decrease in the length and number of feedings. Avoid hot showers or any stimulation to the breast area that would encourage milk production. Continue to wear a good support bra, apply ice and bind the breasts tightly. Medication is not recommended to stop breast milk. It is recommended to use Ibuprofen to decrease any discomfort.